Ⅱ. 말갈에 대한 연구 동향
Ⅲ. 중국정사의 말갈7부
Ⅳ. 삼국사기의 말갈
본고는『삼국지』의 읍루 기록과『수서』ㆍ『구당서』ㆍ『신당서』의 말갈7부 기록, 그리고『삼국사기』의 백제본기ㆍ신라본기의 말갈 기록을 서로 비교하여 살펴보았다. 중국정사의 경우 6세기 중엽 이전에 말갈은 읍루, 물길 등의 명칭으로 나타나고 있다. 만주의 동ㆍ북부 지역에 거주한 말갈7부의 거주지를 보면 공백 부분이 많았는데, 이는 말갈7부가 만주의 동ㆍ북부의 모든 지역을 차지한 것은 아님을 말해주는 것이다. 7부 외에 사모부 등의 다른 부가 있었음에도 불구하고, 거주지 외의 공백부분은 여전히 남기고 있어 중국 정사의 정보가 정확하지 않다는 것이다. 또한 말갈7부 가운데 속말부 백돌부 백산부 등의 군사력을 수천 명이라 기재하여 군사력이 축소 조작되어 있었다. 그리고『삼국사기』의 백제ㆍ신라 양 본기에 보이는 말갈 기록을 검토하였는데, 말갈의 실체에 대해서는 공통점을 가지고 있었다. 4세기부터 백제를 먼저 공격한 말갈은 고구려의 위임통치집단인 낙랑과 연합한 집단이며, 5세기 전후에 신라를 공격한 말갈은 주로 고구려와 연합하여 전투를 수행한 것이었다. 이들 말갈은 함경도에서 추가령지구대를 넘어 백제를 공격하거나 동해안으로 신라를 공격하였으므로, 그들은 만주지역에 존재한 말갈7부가 아니라 별개의 집단이다. 그들은 서기 1세기 중엽 태조왕 때부터 고구려의 예속 하에 있었던 함경도 지역의 동예와 동옥저였다. 따라서 이들 말갈은 말갈7부나 독자 세력이 아니라, 고구려에 의해 동원된 것임을 반영한다. 4세기 이후 고구려가 자신의 지배 아래에 있었던 지방의 예맥족을 말갈이라고 차별하여 불렀으며, 중국은 이 명칭을 받아들여 만주의 동부와 북부에 거주한 여러 민족을 지칭하게 되었던 것이다.
This paper focuses on the study of Malgal(靺鞨) through comparing the records of Malgal 7Bu(seven tribes) in 『Sui shu(隋書)』, 『Jiu Tang shu(舊唐書)』, 『Xin Tangshu(新唐書)』with those of Malgal in Silla bongi and Baekje Bongi of 『Samguk Sagi(三國史記)』 At first, Chinese records show that Malgal was called Euplu(挹婁), Mulgil(勿吉) etc. In the 『Samgukji(三國志)』and 『Hou Han Shu(後漢書), The History of the Later Han 』are records about Euplu which was about the 3rd century AD. But the records of Euplu in 『Hou Han Shu』, which was published 200 years later than 『Samgukji』, had already been in 『Samgukji』, so the records of 『Samgukji』should be basically historical sources, not those of 『Hou Han Shu』. Mulgil which appeared in the late 5th century was one of Euplu groups and drove Buyeo(夫餘) away and occupied it. According to 『Ui shu(魏書)』, Mulgil developed competing over Goguryeo.
Malgal 7Bu(seven tribes) in the History of China was firstly recorded in 『Sui Shu』, and HeuksuMalgal Jeon(흑수말갈전) of 『Xin Tangshu』has its new information.
Seven Malgal tribes lived in the eastern and northern part of Manju. As far as their habitats were concerned, all areas of eastern and northern Manju were not theirs. According to HeuksuMalgal Jeon of 『Xin Tangshu』, there were some Bu(部, divisions, tribes) like Samobu, Gunribu, and etc except 7Bu(seven tribes).
And Balhaejeon(渤海傳) of 『Xin Tangshu』shows that there were some Bu(部, divisions) like Wolhui(越喜) and Cheolhui tribe as well as 7Bu(seven divisions, tribes). Despite these records, some remaining parts of these areas has not been identified. That’s because these records from the history of China were not clear.
In general, most sources in Foreign Biographies in the history of China had been collected and were passed down as they were. 『Sui shu』says that eastern part of Buryeol tribe among Malgal 7Bu(seven tribes) was Sukshin(肅愼, Sushen), but later it was recognized that Malgal people were the descendants of Sukshin in the history of China. The latter was passed down. In addition, 『Xin Tangshu』says that the founding place of Balhae(渤海) was Dongmo mountain(東牟山) in Euplu, but in 『Jiu Tang shu 』it was recorded as Dongmo mountain in Gyeru(桂樓). The different records are considered to be the important basis of Balhae’s succession to Goguryeo. Also, the military strength of Songmalbu, Baekdolbu, Baeksanbu and etc. was recorded as thousands of forces. The record of their strength was distorted and reduced.
And the records of Malgal in Baekje bongi(百濟本紀) and Silla bongi(新羅本紀) of 『Samguk Sagi』shows that ‘who was Malgal’has some in common. Malgal had struck Baekje first from the 4th century, and by the time, Malgal was an allied group with Rakrang(樂浪) under the mandatory rule of Goguryeo. By the 5th century Malgal mostly attacked in alliance with Goguryeo. According to Baekje bongi and Silla bongi, Magal attacked Baekje and Silla over Chugaryeong Rift Valley(楸哥嶺地溝帶) or the East coast, therefore they are considered to be other group, not Malgal seven tribes(7Bu) in Manju area. They were Dongye(東濊) and Dongokjeo(東沃沮), which had been under the control of Goguryeo from the age of King Taejo in the middle of 1st century A.D. Accordingly, it is found that they was mobilized by Goguryeo.
When we compare the records of Malgal 7Bu in the history of China with those of 『Samguk Sagi』, it seems to give little connections with each other. but it doesn’t mean that they were absolutely different groups. Goguryeo put a lot Magal tribes including Baeksanbu and Songmalbu in Manju area as well as Dongye and Okjeo(沃沮) under the control of Goguryeo. Both groups in Manju area and Hamgyeong Province were called Malgal by Goguryeo.
A long time ago, when the Chinese were spelled the name of a nomadic people in Chinese characters, they were used in the Mal or Gal. In the 6th century, China called the peoples of Manchuria and the Amur Malgal. Goguryeo accepted the name of Malgal, and called Yemaek tribe under theier control Magal. Consequently, the name of the Malgal was not ethnic one.
中國正史, 靺鞨七部, 『三國史記』, 靺鞨, 高句麗支配下의 沃沮ㆍ東濊, 卑稱ㆍ汎稱論, Chinese records, Malgal 7Bu, 『Samguk Sagi』, Malgal, Dongye(東濊) and Okjeo(沃沮) under the control of Goguryeo, humble name and general term
서울특별시 금천구 가산디지털1로 168 B동 712호(가산동 우림라이온스 밸리) 02-2026-0131